Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: prevalence, resistance spectrum and genetic determinants of resistance
The lack of simple, rapid diagnostic tests for isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis infection (Hr-TB) can result in low treatment efficacy and further amplification of drug resistance. Based on the clinical data, this study sought to estimate the prevalence of Hr-TB in the general population and characterize the phenotypic susceptibility and genetic determinants of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis strains. Molecular-genetic and culture-based drug susceptibility tests were performed on M. tuberculosis isolates and M. tuberculosis DNA obtained from the patients with pulmonary TB undergoing treatment at the Central Tuberculosis Research Institute between 2011 and 2018. The tests revealed that Hr-TB accounted for 12% of all TB cases in the studied sample. Hr-TB strains were either resistant to isoniazid only (45%) or had multiple resistance to 2–6 anti-TB agents. Resistance to isoniazid was caused by mutations in the katG gene. Based on the literature analysis and our own observations, we emphasize the importance of developing simple molecular drug susceptibility tests capable of detecting simultaneous resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid and the necessity of their translation into clinical practice.