Early detection of melanocytic nevus progression to malignant melanoma is a pressing concern. Traditionally, patients with multiple melanocytic nevi (MMN) are monitored for extended periods of time and excisional biopsies are performed on individual suspicious melanocytic nevi (MN). This approach is costly and tremendously time-consuming for both doctors and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a smartphone-compatible optical instrument in the assessment of MN for malignancy. Seven patients aged 43 to 65 years with MMN on the trunk and upper/lower extremities were followed-up for 4 years. Dermoscopy images of MN were taken and analyzed using a Handyscope smartphone-compatible optical system operated at 20x magnification and a Handyscope3 application. A total of 74 MN were surgically removed during the follow-up period. None of the patients had melanoma. The results of dermoscopy image analysis generated by the convolutional neural network coincided with histopathology findings in all cases. The optical Handyscope system demonstrated its efficacy in assessing MN for malignancy. AI can be used for primary screening of MMN dermoscopy images. However, histopathological verification of the diagnosis is still needed.
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Psoralens are medicinal photosensitizing furocoumarins which are used in photochemotherapy and photoimmunotherapy of dermatoses. Psoralen photooxidation products may be involved in therapeutic effects, but the possible mechanisms of their action remain unclear. The study was aimed to assess the prospective pharmacological effects and mechanisms of activity for six previously identified ortho–hydroxyformyl-containing psoralen photooxidation products and their cycloadducts with aminothiols, as well as for structurally similar compounds (furocoumaric acid and tucaresol). Chemoinformatic analysis of the prospective pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action of these compounds was performed using the PASS and PharmaExpert software. The predicted pharmacological effects partially confirmed by previous studies highlight the possible involvement of psoralen photooxidation products in the effects of PUVA therapy or photopheresis during the course of dermatoses and proliferative disorders treatment. A broad spectrum of pharmacological effects found for furocoumaric acid and cycloadducts of coumarinic and benzofuranic photoproducts of psoralen with cysteine and homocysteine appoints new directions of research relating to therapeutic use of psoralens.
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Dislocation of the acetabular component is one of the most frequent complications of total hip arthroplasty. It is commonly attributed to implant malpositioning. However, not all dislocations can be explained by this hypothesis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of intraoperative injury to hip abductors (m. gluteus minimus in the first place, since it is reportedly an important hip stabilizer) in the development of postoperative hip dislocation. The experiment was conducted in 4 male and 3 female cadavers. A total of 12 THA were performed. The Hardinge and Watson-Jones approaches were used in equal proportion. On plain radiography, acetabular inclination was 40–47°, anteversion was 10–22°; technically and biomechanically, these values were within the normal range and did not depend on the type of surgical approach (for inclination, p = 0.94; for anteversion, p = 0.63), ruling out implant malpositioning as a risk factor for hip dislocation. Nevertheless, implant stability was significantly disrupted following transection of the anterior or posterior fascicle of m. gluteus minimus, leading to the dislocation of the acetabular component in standard rotation and flexion tests. Thus, our study shows the significant role of m. gluteus minimus in stabilizing the hip joint. Preservation or adequate repair of this muscle during surgery will reduce the risk or dislocation and help to restore the anatomy and biomechanics of the operated joint.
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