ISSN Print 2500–1094    ISSN Online 2542–1204
Bulletin of RSMU

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The term “chronic critical illness” (CCI) refers to patients with prolonged dependence on intensive care. In most patients, CCI is triggered by severe brain injury. Ever more studies researching the microbiota in pathologic conditions are published every year, but a lot is yet to be elucidated about the composition of the gut microbiota in CCI. The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlations between changes in the taxonomic abundance of the gut microbiota, levels of proinflammatory and neurological serum biomarkers and the severity of central nervous system injury in patients with CCI. Our prospective observational pilot study included 29 patients with CCI. Using real-time PCR allowed us to detected changes in the taxonomic abundance of the gut microbiota. The correlation analysis of serum biomarkers and the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota revealed statistically significant correlations between cortisol levels and the abundance of F. prausnitzii (r = ‒0.62; p < 0.05) and B. thetaiotaomicron (r = ‒0.57; p < 0.05) in vegetative state patients; between the CRP/albumin ratio and the abundance of S. aureus (r = 0.72; p < 0.05); between the abundance of B. fragilis group/F. prausnitzii and S100 levels (r = 0.45; p <0.05) in conscious patients; between Glasgow coma scale scores and the abundance of Enterococcus spp. (r = ‒0.77; p <0.05) in both groups. Thus, the association between the changes in the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota and the severity of neurologic deficit can be evaluated using PCR-based diagnostic techniques and blood serum biomarkers. This approach will help to optimize antibacterial treatment regimens and/or develop alternative strategies to minimize the aggressive effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiota.
Thrombogenicity and its causes in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and pre-existing polycythemia vera (PV) is a significant clinical concern. The aim of this study was to identify the range of factors associated with increased thrombogenicity in patients with IS and pre-existing PV. We performed a physical examination and laboratory tests on 127 patients in the hyperacute stroke stage and 16-18 months after. Of them, 68 patients had PV (the main group) and 59 did not have this condition (the comparison group). Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate blood rheology, hemostasis, endothelial function, angiogenesis, proinflammatory cytokine levels; we also tested patients for the presence of the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene and analyzed the contribution of all studied parameters to the development of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. We found that the neurological picture did not differ between the groups: mean NIHSS scores were 12 and 13 points, respectively. Morphological and functional characteristics of red blood cells and platelets, hemostasis and cytokine profiles were compared between patients with IS and pre-existing PV and the comparison group. One of the key elements in potentiating thrombotic complications in patients with IS and PV was JAK2 V617F allele burden. The obtained data suggest the cumulative effect of the identified factors promoting thrombus formation in post-stroke patients with PV and overpowering the effect of antiplatelet therapy.
Sustained-release drugs against tuberculosis are a promising approach to therapy since they positively affect patient compliance with long regimens, especially when it comes to the multidrug-resistant form of the disease. Conventional UV-visible spectroscopy does not work well with multicomponential culture media used for growing M. tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to develop a method for evaluating the kinetics of anti-tuberculosis drug released from bioresorbable polymeric carriers suitable for screening a wide range of encapsulated prolonged-release drugs and identifying the best performing candidate. While studying the growth dynamics of the laboratory susceptible strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the presence of different levofloxacin concentrations (from 0.03 to 0.4 μg/ml), we developed a model, which is essentially a set of 2 parallel experiments evaluating the kinetics of drug release into the culture medium. The results of these 2 experiments conducted on 3 encapsulated forms of levofloxacin loaded onto bioresorbable polymeric PLGA carriers (particles sized 50 μm and 100 μm and the matrix) revealed that release kinetics of the drug largely depended on the type of polymeric carrier. The best encapsulation of the antibiotic and its gradual release into the culture medium was observed for the matrix. All experiments were run in 3 replicates. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

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Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, enters the cell by binding the cell surface proteins: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). The expression of these proteins varies significantly in individual organs and tissues of the human body. One of the proteins’ expression regulation mechanisms is based on the activity of the microRNA (miRNA) molecules, small non-coding RNAs, the most important function of which is the post-transcriptional negative regulation of gene expression. The study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the interactions between miRNA isoforms and ACE2/TMPRSS2 genes in the colon tissues known for the high level of expression of the described enzymes. The search for interactions was performed using the correlation analysis applied to the publicly available paired mRNA/miRNA sequencing data of colon tissues. Among the others, such miRNAs as miR-30c and miR-200c were identified known for their involvement in the coronavirus infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome pathogenesis. Thus, new potential mechanisms for the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 enzymes regulation were ascertained, as well as their possible functional activity in a cell infected with coronavirus.
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 Our news
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 Our news
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.