ISSN Print 2500–1094    ISSN Online 2542–1204
Bulletin of RSMU

New articles

In the last decade the search for and annotation of human genome polymorphisms associated with phenotype have become particularly important concerning the opportunity of their use in medical and population genetics, pharmacogenomics and evolutionary biology. The study was aimed to calculate the frequencies and analyze the prevalence of 13 germline polymorphisms of two genes, ТР53 encoding the genome-keeper p53 protein and WRAP53 involved in regulation of p53 production, in 28 Russian populations. We obtained data on 9 exonic ТР53 variants (rs587781663, rs17882252, rs150293825, rs112431538, rs149633775, rs144340710, rs1042522, rs1800371, rs201753350), one intronic polymorphism (rs17881850), and three variants of WRAP53 (rs17880282, rs2287499, rs34067256). In the majority of populations the sample size was over 50 people (except five populations with 30–49 surveyed people). The alternative alleles’ population frequencies for studies genetic variants in most Russian populations were close to appropriate allele frequencies in European and Asian populations of similar origin taken from global databases. The exceptions were six populations ("Central Caucasus", "Dagestan", "northern Russians", "southeastern Russians", "Tatars" and "Transcaucasia") with increased alternative alleles’ population frequencies. All listed populations except the population of “southeastern Russians” are characterized by polymorphisms with high allele frequencies not satisfying the Hardy–Weinberg principle.
The negative impact of the digital environment on the health of young people necessitates the search for new methods of hygienic education. This study aimed to test and assess the hygienic qualities of the practice designed to give students and schoolchildren the skills allowing safe use of electronic devices. The study involved 256 students, 200 senior schoolchildren, 400 teachers and 251 parent. The hygienic education practice relied on the healthy lifestyle materials published in scientific literature, as well as materials posted on the Internet resources of medical organizations professionally engaged in the area considered, as well as their groups in the social networks Odnoklassniki, VKontakte, Facebook, Instagram, etc. We observed physical development of the schoolchildren and students dynamically and polled schoolchildren, students, teachers, and parents. For statistical processing of the results, we used methods of descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, correlation, discriminant and cluster analysis, and calculated risks. As the most popular source of information about health maintenance, Internet scored as follows: among schoolchildren — 79.0%, students — 88.6%, parents — 64.9%, teachers — 50.4%. The tested hygienic education practice allowed for a reduction of the number of schoolchildren and students who did not have the skills to safely use electronic devices to 20 and 25%, respectively. The practice also taught the participants to reduce their daily smartphone use time, engage in physical activity more often, which ultimately increased the share of children whose physical development was normal (p ≤ 0.01), and helped to increase the duration of night sleep. The tested methods of education are not costly; they can be replicated in other regions and organizations.
Neuroimmune interactions represent a highly dynamic mechanism for the regulation of cognitive function in chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in salivary proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 and anti-inflammatory IL10 in patients with CCI (mean age 65.4 ± 9.1 years) before and after cognitive tests. After cognitive tests, the levels of salivary IL1β and IL6 were significantly elevated by 101.6 ± 19.1 pg/ml (n = 74) and 32.8 ± 6.1 pg/ml (n = 74), respectively. Using one-way ANOVA ana non-parametric statistical methods, we were able to demonstrate associations between changes in salivary interleukins and cognitive performance. In the group of patients with a significant increase in IL1β, some cognitive parameters were lower than in the group with negative or zero dynamics of this cytokine: the patients made more mistakes in the subtraction test (F = 11.5; n = 63; p = 0.001) and performed worse in the Luria test (F = 6.8; n = 65; p = 0.01). For IL6, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient for the number of mistakes in the subtraction test was positive and differed significantly from 0 (R = 0.26; n = 62; p = 0.042). The group with positive IL10 dynamics performed better in N-back test (F = 5.2; n = 67; p = 0.03) and made fewer mistakes in the subtraction test (F = 6.8; n = 63; p = 0.01) in comparison with patients who demonstrated negative IL10 dynamics. Good performance in other cognitive tests was not correlated with interleukin dynamics. The article also discusses possible mechanisms underlying interleukin effects on cognitive function in patients with CCI and applications of the obtained data.
The paper reports the results of survey carried out in order to assess patients’ opinion on the remote medical care provided by the telemedicine center of theDepartment of health of Moscow during the pandemic. Survey of 216 COVID-19 patients who received outpatient care made it possible to assess their healthcondition and determine the factors contributing to satisfaction with care provided. Patients’ health condition was evaluated based on the course of underlyingdisease and comorbidities, which were revealed in 24.3% of COVID-19 patients. The following three groups were formed: patients with favorable (37.5%),satisfactory (36.7%) and unfavorable (25.8%) health condition. The majority of patients (76.4%) were satisfied with telemedicine consultations; men (79.8%),individuals with favorable condition (83.1%) and patients under 50 (81.9%) demonstrated significantly higher level of satisfaction. The following arguments in favourof telemedicine consultations were specified by patients: appointment of the specialist’s consultation, promptness of treatment appointment, provision of medicalrecommendations, including recommendations on a healthy lifestyle, as well as promptness of house call and ambulance call. The main dissatisfaction reasons wereas follows: lack of appropriate equipment, difficulties when setting up the equipment, complexity of the instructions for connecting to telemedicine consultations,poor quality of video/audio conferencing; these indicated the patients’ inadequate technical resources. Telemedicine consultations may be considered an effectivemethod of outpatient care provision for COVID-19 patients, especially since 64.7% of patients plan to use telemedicine consultations in the future, and 72.3% ofpatients are ready to recommend them to others.

Popular articles

SARS-CoV-2 is a RNA coronavirus of the β-CoVs family responsible for the pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). It is hypothesized that the viral genome of the contemporary predominant founder clones is likely to be evolving in geographic-dependent manner. Thus, strains of different origin may be characterized by different mutation patterns. The study was aimed to perform the mutational and phylogenetic analysis of the Russian SARS-CoV-2 genomes at different time periods and in various regions, as well as to characterize the mutational profiles of isolates using the bioinformatics approaches. The mutation accumulation was compared in 86 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences from Russia and 220 from Europe and North America in order to reveal the characteristic gene variations, the possible positive selection patterns. Along with the known mutation variants in the structural proteins genes, typical for isolates of European origin, several additional mutations including the synonymous mutation in gene M (C26750Т) characteristic for Russian isolates were revealed. Double mutation R203K and G204R in the nucleocapside gene which previously emerged in Europe began spreading and rapidly (within a month) became the dominant form in Russia. The results obtained indicate that the viral genome of most Russian isolates evolves with accumulation of new mutations associated with increased viral transmission. Data on the SARS-CoV-2 genome specific mutation patterns might be used for the detection of the virus, as well as for tracking and controlling of its spread.
Demographic aging poses a challenge to the medical community, pressing for research into the biological factors promoting longevity and its features. Below, we look at the gut microbiota as one of such factors. The aim of this non-longitudinal study was to profile the gut microbiota of centenarians and to compare it with that of relatively healthy, younger Moscow residents. The study recruited 20 people aged 97–100 years (mean age 98 ± 1 year); the control group consisted of 92 individuals aged 53 ± 13 years. For each stool sample, the variable V3–V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Primary analysis, read filtering and taxonomic identification were conducted in the QIIME 1.9 environment; reconstruction of metabolic pathways was aided by PICRUSt. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Python v. 3.2. A few differences were detected between the gut microbiota of centenarians and younger individuals: Bifidobacterium (р = 0.026) and Coprococcus eutactus (р = 0.026) were more abundant in centenarians, whereas Bacteroides (р = 0.003) and Prevotella (р = 0.002) were better represented in younger participants. The potential for butyric acid synthesis was higher in the group of centenarians (р = 0.048). Surprisingly, the gut microbiota of centenarians was more diverse and surprisingly beneficial for advanced age. Besides, the gut microbiota of centenarians might have more pronounced anti-inflammatory potential due to its ability to better synthesize butyric acid.
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 Our news
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 Our news
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.