ISSN Print 2500–1094    ISSN Online 2542–1204
Bulletin of RSMU
BIOMEDICAL JOURNAL OF PIROGOV UNIVERSITY (MOSCOW, RUSSIA)

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Tumor-associated macrophages are able to regulate the tumor cell proliferation and to affect the tumor cell dissemination. The study was aimed to assess the predictive potential of the macrophage population immunohistochemical phenotyping in early malignization of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis. Gastic biopsy samples of male and female patients aged 48 ± 7.2 infected with Helicobacter pylori were used as the research material. The patients were divided into three groups: non-atrophic chronic gastritis (NACG, n = 10), atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG, n = 10), G1/G2 gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC, n = 10). The macrophage population was visualized using the CD68 pan-macrophage marker and the type 2 monocyte/macrophage marker CD163. Intensity of neoangiogenesis was defined using the CD31 endothelial marker by assessing the total cross sectional area of blood vessels. It was found that chronic gastritis was accompanied by the dynamic increase in the size of the general macrophage population with the progression of atrophic and metaplastic processes. According to immunohistochemical study of biopsies obtained from patients with NCG, the CD163 : CD68 ratio was 0.67 ± 0.02, and the total cross sectional area of blood vessels was 3590.92 ± 356.27 µm2. Atrophic gastritis and adenocarcinoma were characterized by vector redistribution of monocytes/macrophages into the 2nd functional phenotype. The CD163 : CD68 expression index in the group with ACG was 0.81 ± 0.04, and in the group with GAC it was 0.88 ± 0.03. Microvascular area was significantly increased in the groups with ACG and GAC, which reflected tumor neoangiogenesis intensification under the influence of М2 monocytes/macrophages. The increased expression of CD163 can serve as a predictor of chronic gastritis malignization together with evaluation of the glandular epithelium atrophy and metaplasia degree.
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A BCI-controlled hand exoskeleton activates neuroplasticity mechanisms, promoting motor learning. The contribution of perception to this phenomenon is understudied. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sensorimotor integration on the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation based on the learning of a hand opening movement by stroke patients using BCI and to investigate the effect of ideomotor training on spasticity in the paretic hand. The study was conducted in 58 patients (median age: 63 (22; 83) years) with traumatic brain injury, ischemic (76%) or hemorrhagic (24%) stroke in the preceding 2 (1.0; 12.0) months. The patients received 15 (12; 21) ideomotor training sessions with a BMI-controlled hand exoskeleton. Hand function was assessed before and after rehabilitation on the Fugl–Meyer, ARAT, Frenchay, FIM, Rivermead, and Ashworth scales. An increase in muscle strength was observed in 40% of patients during flexion and extension of the radiocarpal joint and in 29% of patients during the abduction and adduction of the joint. Muscle strength simultaneously increased during the abduction and adduction of the radiocarpal joint (p < 0.004). Ideomotor training is ineffective for reducing spasticity because no statistically significant reduction in muscle tone was detected. Improved motor performance of the paretic hand was positively correlated with improvements in daily activities. Motor training of the paretic hand with a robotic orthosis activates kinesthetic receptors, restores sensation and improves fine motor skills through better sensorimotor integration.
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Popular articles

The importance of post-stroke rehabilitation cannot be overestimated. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a standardized post-stroke rehabilitation program for patients with moderate impairments. A total of 122 stroke survivors participated in the study. Group 1 (the comparison group) consisted of 59 patients undergoing standard rehabilitation. Group 2 (the main group) consisted of 63 patients participating in a specially designed social rehabilitation program. The functional, cognitive, psychological and emotional states and the level of social activity were monitored for 6 months. Group 2 demonstrated more pronounced improvement than group 1 after 6 months of follow-up, confirmed by higher Rivermead (p = 0.011) and SS-QOL (p < 0.05) scores and lower DASH and Beck scores (p = 0.015 and p < 0.001, respectively). In both groups, MMSE (cognitive function) scores slightly increased, but the differences between the groups were insignificant. The proposed post-stroke rehabilitation program is effective in helping patients regain their independence and improve social adaptation. The scales and scores used in the study, especially DASH and SS-QOL, are sensitive to changes in the functional state of stroke survivors with moderate impairments.
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Impaired placental development during early pregnancy associated with systemic damage to the vascular endothelium in patients with COVID-19 may result in a number of complications. The study was aimed to reveal histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of placental tissue in pregnant women with COVID-19 at different stages of gestation, and to examine the contribution of those to pathogenesis of the disease involving mother-placenta-fetus system. The following two groups of pregnant women were studied: index group of 66 patients with COVID-19, and comparison group of 40 women with no symptoms of viral infection. Macroscopic and microscopic examination, and the IHC analysis of placental samples were carried out. Clinical and anamnestic characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analyzed taking into account disease severity, delivery route and perinatal outcome. ICH staining using primary antibody revealed elevated expression of proinflammatory factors (TNFα, IL8) and reduced level of anti-inflammatory factors (IL4) in placental structures of patients with moderate and severe СOVID-19 (р < 0.05). The villous tree rearrangement and the development of subclinical placental insufficiency, which could in some cases be decompensated during labor, resulting in clinical manifestations of acute fetal hypoxia were detected in the placental samples obtained from the index group patients. The obstetrical tactics for mothers with COVID-19 should be decided individually based on the risk factors; continuous cardiotocography should be used during labor. It may be appropriate to conduct IHC analysis of placenta in puerperant women with COVID-19 in order to fine-tune the tactics of neonatal management and to predict possible neonatal complications.
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Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.