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Bulletin of RSMU

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The cellular response to various types of stress underlying placental vascular dysfunction is under the sumoylation control. Consequently, SUMO homeostasis is closely related to the maintenance of angiogenic balance, the disruption of which is a feature of preeclampsia (PE). The goal of the research is to search for exosomal markers of such a disorder. The expression and prognostic potential of exosomal SUMO 1–4, UBC9 and hnRNPA2/B1 were evalueted in 39 pregnant women (cohort I) in the first trimester using Western blotting technology. The expression of these proteins in the placenta (cohort II, 27 pregnant women) at the time of delivery was also assessed. The expression of their conjugated forms was significantly changed in pregnant women with early-onset (SUMO 1, p = 0.03; SUMO 2/3/4, p = 0.03) and late-onset PE (SUMO 1, p = 0.03; SUMO 2/3/4, p = 0.04; UBC9 and hnRNPA2/B1, p < 0.0001, respectively). This change may be due to the functional specificity of SUMO isoforms in the context of their subcellular targets upon exposure to stressful stimuli. Significant changes in the expression of these proteins were also found in the placenta. Significant correlations were established between the expression of exosomal SUMO 2/3/4 (r = –0.59; p = 0.01) and UBC9 (r = –0.88; p = 0.0001) with PlGF in early-onset PE. In late-onset PE, hnRNPA2/B1 (r = –0.48; p = 0.03) and UBC9 (r = –0.48; p = 0.03) was correlated with β-hCG, and SUMO 2/3/4 with PAPP-A (r = –0.60; p = 0.006) in the blood serum of pregnant women. The analyzed proteins also significantly correlated with uterine artery pulsation index (SUMO 1 (r = 0.59; p = 0.01), SUMO 2/3/4 (r = 0.54; p = 0.02), hnRNPA2/B1 (r = 0.75; p = 0.0001)) and mean arterial pressure (UBC9 (r = 0.53; p = 0.03)). Based on the data the logistic models have been created to predict the risk of developing early-onset (UBC9 (AUC = 0.88; Se-0.72; Sp-1)) and late-onset PE (SUMO 1 (AUC = 0.79; Se-0.8; Sp-0.77)) at 11–14 weeks of pregnancy.
Reduction of the adverse effects of intraoperative intraocular pressure fluctuation referred to as post-occlusion surge on the intraocular structures is an important task for ensuring phacoemulsification safety. In this regard, the method to control infusion during phacoemulsification based on controlling the infusion and aspiration flow rates in combination with monitoring of vacuum parameters was developed. The study was aimed to provide comparative assessment of clinical and functional characteristics of the eye in patients after phacoemulsification using the new and already existing adaptive infusion control methods. A total of 38 patients aged 66.4 ± 7.8 years (15 males and 23 females) in the index group (Optimed Profi system with the use of new method) and 35 patients aged 68.7 ± 7.5 years (16 males and 19 females) in the control group (Centurion Vision System with Active Fluidics) underwent surgery due to cataract. The patients underwent comprehensive eye examination before surgery and on days 1, 7, 30, months 3, 6 after surgery. The smaller loss of corneal endothelial cells on months 3 and 6 after surgery was observed in patients of the index group with grade III and IV cataract (p < 0.05). Comparison of macular microcirculation parameters revealed the reduced FAZ area by month 6 of postoperative follow-up in the index group, along with the increased total vascular density of the deep vasculature (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the total density of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses by month 6 of postoperative follow-up was observed in the control group (p < 0.05). The use of new adaptive infusion control method contributes to effective phacoemulsification of cataracts of varying density with the lower percentage of the corneal endothelial cells lost in the late postoperative period.
Toxicity testing, including testing for skin toxicity, is essential for certification of novel pharmaceutical, chemical, and skincare products. The in vitro assessment models are considered to be the most promising; a number of such tests have been introduced into practice of approval testing. The new possibilities of detecting the early cellular response to damage can be provided by the cell-based sensors built upon visual quantification of the changes in activity of the signaling pathways involved in realization of such response. NF-κB and AP-1 represent two important protein transcription factors, the increase in activity of which in the cell is associated with damage, inflammation or redox balance alteration. The study was aimed to develop the cell-based sensors built upon the HaCaT immortalized human keratinocyte cell line that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) when the NF-κB (HaCaT/NF-κB) or AP-1 (HaCaT/AP-1) signaling pathway is activated, as well as to assess their information capacity when recording the dose-dependent response to the exposure to inducers of appropriate signaling pathways. The findings showed that the HaCaT/NF-κB cell fluorescence levels changed by 6.05 ± 0.51 and 5.53 ± 0.52 times upon exposure to TNFα or LPS (at a concentration of 0–80 ng/mL) in a dose dependent manner. The HaCaT/AP-1 biosensor also responded to the exposure to Cd (NO3)2 (at a concentration of 0–40 µМ) and ultraviolet A (UVA) (0–40 J/cm2), however, it enabled qualitative, but not quantitative detection. The censor cell fluorescence increased by 1.51 ± 0.24 and 1.66 ± 0.43 times, respectively. The cell-based sensors developed can be used to assess cytotoxic effects of the test substances on the human skin cells in vitro and study the cytotoxicity mechanisms.

Popular articles

There are no actual statistical data on maxillofacial trauma, nor is there a published analysis addressing morbidity patterns, including cases requiring admission to maxillofacial surgery departments. Such data and the respective analysis could help to assess effectiveness of the maxillofacial trauma and diseases prevention and treatment measures, improve the emergency care approaches, identify problems in the medical aid system's maxillofacial surgery domain. This study aimed to analyze the aspects of emergency admission to hospitals for reasons requiring maxillofacial surgery. We processed hospital records of 15,227 patients admitted from 2018 through 2022. The analysis revealed the number of emergency maxillofacial cases to be at a fairly high level and show no downward trend. The majority of the patients are young, able-bodied men. Of all the admitted persons, 28.6% came to the hospital on their own; 22.9% were nonresidents and foreigners. The average hospital stay was 3.85 days, it did not change significantly during the studied period. The prevailing types of trauma were maxillofacial injuries and mandibular fractures. For 29.9% of patients with the latter type, the treatment method of choice was osteosynthesis. Up to 70% of all the patients needed to be followed-up by a maxillofacial surgeon after discharge. The mortality rate in maxillofacial surgery departments is extremely low; all such cases involved concomitant pathologies.
Circulating monocytes are important actors of the tumor growth pathogenesis. It has been shown that some features of the monocyte populations expressing endocytosis receptors or the major histocompatibility complex components are observed in blood of patients with breast cancer. The study was aimed to assess the relationship of tumor parameters and blood cytokine profile with the composition of circulating monocyte populations in patients with localized and locally advanced breast cancer. The study has shown that the circulating monocytes’ phenotypic characteristics are correlated to the clinical and morphological features of the neoplastic process. The content of populations with the CD14+CD16++CD163+ and CD14++CD16+CD163+ phenotypes positively correlates with the disease stage, while larger primary tumor size is associated with lower CD14+CD16++ monocyte levels. Elevated serum levels of IL8 and МСР-1 are observed in breast cancer patients. High IL6 levels in patients with breast cancer are associated with the reduced percentage of CD14++CD16-HLA-DR+, CD14+CD16++HLA-DR+ and CD14++CD16-СD163+ monocytes. Thus, CD163+ and HLA-DR+ monocytes are associated with the clinical and morphological parameters and blood levels of cytokines, which suggests that these populations are involved in breast cancer progression and indicates that further research is advisable for translation of the findings into clinical practice.
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.