Peculiarity of Pomors of Onega Peninsula and Winter Coast in the genetic context of Northern Europe

Okovantsev VS1, Ponomarev GYu1, Agdzhoyan AT1, Agdzhoyan AT1, Pylev VYu1,2, Balanovska EV1,2
About authors

1 Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia

2 Biobank of North Eurasia, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Vladimir S. Okovantsev
Moskvorechye, 1, 115522, Moscow, Russia; ur.xednay@vokoavov

About paper

Funding: The study was supported by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research № 20-09-00479_a (field survey, statistical analysis, genotyping), Russian Science Foundation № 21-14-00363 (field survey, sample preparation, article writing), State task of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation for the Research Centre for Medical Genetics (cartographic analysis, result interpretation).

Acknowledgements: the authors thank all participants of the expedition survey (sample donors), the Administration and the Ministry of Health of the Arkhangelsk Oblast for organizational support and assistance in conducting the expedition survey, and the Biobank of North Eurasia for the access to DNA collections.

Author contribution: Balanovska EV — leadership of the expedition survey of Pomors; Okovantsev VS, Ponomarev GYu, Agdzhoyan Anastasia T, Agdzhoyan Anna T, Pylev VY — expedition survey of Pomors; Ponomarev GYu, Pylev VY — genotyping of Y-SNP markers; Agdzhoyan Anastasia T, Okovantsev VS, Agdzhoyan Anna T — statistical analysis, cartographic analysis; Balanovska EV, Agdzhoyan Anastasia T, Okovantsev VS — study design, article writing.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the ethical review board of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Research Centre for Medical Genetics» (protocol № 1 of 29 June 2020).

Received: 2022-09-11 Accepted: 2022-09-25 Published online: 2022-09-30
Fig. 1. Location of the studied groups in the Pomor population system. A. Traditional Pomor settlements on the shores of the White Sea and the birthplaces of paternal ancestors of survey participants. B. Arkhangelsk Oblast settlements where the survey was carried out. (Map source in A: http://lexicon.dobrohot.org/images/c/c5/00133909.jpg)
Fig. 2. Spectrum of Y-chromosome haplogroups in the studied Arkhangelsk Oblast populations. A. Main haplogroup shares in the Russian North gene pool. The Krasnoborsky District group (n = 81) also included samples from the neighboring Lensky District (n = 8), as their gene pool proximity was previously shown [5]. B. Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies (main ones subdivided into branches) in Onega Pomors. The top row of the table shows the abbreviated names of the Y-chromosome haplogroups, the second row shows the corresponding SNP markers. Haplogroup frequencies in bold correspond to the 5% polymorphism level criterion
Fig. 3. Pomor gene pool in the genetic space of North-Eastern Europe. The multidimensional scaling plot was drawn using the frequencies of 15 Y-chromosome haplogroups, alienation index 0.13, stress index 0.11. The colors indicate linguistic affiliation of the populations: Slavic peoples (red), Baltic peoples (yellow), Finno-Ugric peoples (blue). The names of the Russian populations are deciphered in the table
Fig. 4. Maps of Nei's genetic distances from the three Onega Pomor populations. A. General (average of three maps of individual populations). B. Onega Coast. C. Summer Coast. D. Winter Coast. The population from which distances are calculated is marked with an asterisk. Green and yellow tones reflect the minimum distances to the population, red-brown — maximum
Table. Genetic and geographical distances between the Onega Pomors and the comparison populations
Note: green tones indicate maximum genetic similarity, red tones indicate genetic dissimilarity; numbers (#) of populations correspond to # on the multidimensional scaling plot; * — distance to populations was measured by frequencies of 11 haplogroups.