Emergence of new infections in the 21st century and identification of pathogens using next generation sequencing

About authors

1 Department of Physical Measurement Methods, A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology,
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

2 Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics,
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

3 Translational Biomedicine Laboratory,
N. F. Gamaleya Federal Research Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow

Correspondence should be addressed: Valentin Makarov
ul. Leninskie gory, d. 1., str. 40, Moscow, Russia, 119991; moc.liamg@enitnelavvorakam

About paper

Funding: this work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant no. 15–54–04004.

All authors' contribution to this work is equivalent: selection and analysis of literature, planning of the manuscript's structure, data interpretation, drafting of the manuscript, editing, checking of the references, literary editing.

Received: 2017-02-03 Accepted: 2017-02-08 Published online: 2017-03-11

Each new emerging infection may become a big challenge to the medical community. Changing environment, tropical deforestation, melting of the Antarctic ice, growing population density and uncontrolled use of antibiotics provoke emergence and evolution of pathogens. Epidemics caused by new strains of the influenza virus, respiratory syndromes associated with coronaviruses, outbreaks of hemolytic Escherichia coli infections and antibiotic-resistant superbacteria are hazards to humans. Among high-priority measures for pathogen control that are yet to be taken is development of fast and accurate techniques for pathogen identification. Our review looks at the cases of new infections registered in the 21st century and explores feasibility of next generation sequencing for the detection and identification of new pathogens.

Keywords: infectious agents, pathogens, techniques for identification of new pathogens, next generation sequencing, coronavirus, influenza virus, horizontal gene transfer, resistance to antibiotics