The use of electronic devices by students, parents and teachers before and after the transition to distance learning

About authors

1 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

2 Burdenko Voronezh State Medical University, Voronezh, Russia

3 Voronezh State Pedagogical University, Voronezh, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Svetlana V. Markelova
Ostrovityanova, 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia; ur.umsr@vs_avolekram

About paper

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (Protocol № 159 dated November 21, 2016). The survey did not encroach upon human rights, did not expose the respondents to any dangers and complied with the principles of biomedical ethics.

Author contribution: Milushkina OYu, Popov VI, Skoblina NA planned and supervised the study, analyzed the obtained data and wrote the manuscript; Markelova SV, Sokolova NV analyzed the literature, collected and processed the questionnaires. All authors participated in manuscript revision.

Received: 2020-05-14 Accepted: 2020-06-15 Published online: 2020-06-28
Table 1. Subjective vision assessment and behavioral risk factors for ED overuse in high school students, their parents and teachers in the brick-and-mortar setting, %
Note: * — differences are significant at р ≤ 0.05.
Table 2. Subjective vision assessment by high school students, parents and teachers who were willing or unwilling to reduce the amount of screen time, %
Note: * — differences are significant, р ≤ 0,05.
Table 3. The proportion of high school students who used ED for traditional and distance education, according to parents’ reports, %
Note: * — differences are significant, р ≤ 0,05.