Antiviral system of innate immunity: COVID-19 pathogenesis and treatment

About authors

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Alexander N. Kazimirskii
Ostrovityanova, 1, Moscow, 117437; ur.liam@01acinla

About paper

Author contribution: the authors contributed equally to all aspects of the article.

Received: 2020-08-31 Accepted: 2020-09-13 Published online: 2020-09-21

 Antiviral system of innate immunity includes two main components: the mitochondrial antiviral sensor — the mitochondrial outer membrane protein and peripheral blood neutrophils capable of forming neutrophilic extracellular traps. Depending on the activation pathway of the mitochondrial antiviral sensor (MAVS), two possible variants of cells death, apoptosis or cellular degeneration with necrotic changes, develop during cell infection with an RNA-containing virus. The development of virus-induced apoptosis of infected cells causes the formation of neutrophilic extracellular traps, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, ROS generation, tissue damage, hemocoagulation and the development of an acute inflammatory process with the development of COVID-19 pneumonia. Violation of the prion-like reaction of MAVS in response to viral infection of the cell triggers an alternative pathway for activating autophagy. Cells under conditions of prolonged activation of autophagy experience necrotic changes and are eliminated from the organism by monocytes/macrophages that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. This type of reaction of the antiviral system of innate immunity corresponds to the asymptomatic course of the disease. From the most significant aspects of the pathogenesis of the coronavirus infection COVID-19 given, recommendations for the prophylactic treatment of this dangerous disease follow. The proposed treatment can significantly decrease the severity of COVID-19 disease and reduce mortality.

Keywords: innate immunity, antiviral system, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS, neutrophilic extracellular traps, COVID-19 treatment