Changes in blood levels of IL1 family cytokines in patients with essential hypertension after having COVID-19

Radaeva OA1, Simbirtsev AS2, Kostina YuA1, Iskandiarova MS1, Mashnina SV1, Bessheynov DD, Negodnova EV1, Kulyapkin VV1
About authors

1 National Research Mordovia State University, Saransk, Russia

2 State Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, FMBA, St. Petersburg, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Olga A. Radaeva
Ulyanova, 26а, Saransk, 430020; ur.liam@demaveadar

About paper

Author contribution: Radaeva ОА — study design, analysis of the results, manuscript editing; Simbirtsev АS — formulating research aim, final version of the article; Kostina YuA — laboratory tests, manuscript editing; Iskandyarova МS — literature analysis, working on the first manuscript draft; Mashnina SV — literature analysis, monitoring of patients; Bessheynov DD — statistical data processing; Negodnova EV — working on the first manuscript draft; Kulyapkin VV — statistical processing of data obtained during the 6th month of follow-up.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Research Mordovia State University (protocol № 12 dated December 14, 2008, protocol № 85 dated May 27, 2020), the research was carried out in accordance with the WMA Declaration of Helsinki (2013) and the protocol of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1999) taking into consideration the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research (2005). Informed consent was submitted by all patients.

Received: 2021-05-19 Accepted: 2021-06-02 Published online: 2021-06-07

Pathogenetic progression mechanisms in the SARS-CoV-2–essential hypertension (EAH) system are more complex than interaction at the level of angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The study was aimed to assess the dynamic changes of the IL1 members (IL1β, IL1α, IL1ra, IL18, IL18BP, IL37) blood levels in patients with EAH 10, 30, and 180 days after having COVID-19 in order to define cytokine-mediated mechanisms of EAH progression during the period following infection. The study involved four groups of patients: with a history of EAH and COVID-19 (pneumonia/no pneumonia), with a history of COVID-19 (pneumonia/no pneumonia) and no EAH. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The study results demonstrate the prolonged proinflammatory immune response during the period following infection in patients with EAH (retaining higher levels of IL1β, IL1α, and IL18 on days 10, 30, and 180 after recovery (р < 0.001) compared to levels measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection). In the group with no EAH, the balance of assayed cytokines was restored on day 30 of follow-up. The two-fold increase of blood IL18 levels in patients, having a history of EAH and COVID-19 and showing no increase in the IL18ВР levels after 30 days of follow up compared to the values measured prior to infection, is associated with cardiovascular complications occurring during the first six months of follow-up. This makes it possible to hypothesize the importance of these immunoregulatory peptides for the pathogenesis of complications and enhances the relevance of further scientific research.

Keywords: arterial hypertension, COVID-19, IL1β, IL1α, IL18, cardiovascular complications