Features of the pathogenetic mechanisms of tuberculous peritonitis in an experiment
The prevalence of tuberculous peritonitis that has been observed in the recent decades is the result of lymphohematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) from lungs and other extrapulmonary sources. It is still unclear why certain organs and anatomical regions get involved in the inflammatory process during generalization of the tuberculosis infection. Why do some cases develop into peritoneal tuberculosis and other into kidney tuberculosis? Thus study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of tuberculous peritonitis in a reproducible biological model. Tuberculous peritonitis was modeled in 18 rabbits (10 in the test group, 8 in control) by intraperitoneal inoculation of the MBT suspension. In order to suppress peritoneal macrophages and major cytokines, test group rabbits were injected with the TNFα inhibitor and iron (III) hydroxide sucrose complex before being infected, while control group rabbits received no immunosuppressive drugs. Autopsy of the control group animals revealed changes characteristic of pulmonary tuberculosis in 37.5% of cases, with no damage to other organs and systems registered. Conversely, test group rabbits had the signs of tuberculous peritonitis in their abdominal cavities. The results of this study suggest that it is the local immunity of an anatomical area that largely determines whether a secondary focus of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection will develop there or not. For the peritoneum, a smaller pool of peritoneal macrophages and weaker cytokine production is a necessary and sufficient condition to have tuberculous peritonitis developing therein.