Lower extremity vein thrombosis and its consequences in stroke recovery period

Orlova EV, Berdalin AB, Lelyuk VG
About authors

Federal Center of Brain Research and Neurotechnologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Ekaterina V. Orlova
Ostrovityanova, 1, str. 10, 117513, Moscow, Russia; moc.liamg@kylhs.aniretake

About paper

Funding: the study was conducted under the State Order #388-00083-22-00 of December 30, 2021, NIR (research effort) registration number 122022100113-7 of February 21, 2022.

Author contribution: Orlova EV — literature review, work with the database, article authoring; Berdalin AB — work with the database, statistical data processing, article authoring; Lelyuk VG — research planning and management, search for project funding, editing and approval of the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal Center of Brain Research and Neurotechnologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia (Minutes of the Meeting #01/19-09-22 of September 19, 2022); All participants of the study signed a voluntary informed consent form.

Received: 2022-09-29 Accepted: 2022-10-14 Published online: 2022-10-27

Post-stroke lower extremity vein thrombosis can be the reason behind complications of embolic nature and death. This study aimed to investigate the influence of provoking factors, frequency and localization of acute thrombosis, post-thrombotic changes in the lower extremity veins during stroke recovery period. The study involved 1315 patients, 885 (67.3%) male and 430 (32.7%) female, ages 18–94 years, mean age 59.23 ± 13.7 years. All participants underwent lower extremity venous duplex scanning in the early and late stages of stroke recovery period. We found no evidence of interconnections between presence of signs of thrombosis and/or its consequences and the pathogenetic variant of stroke the patient had. Acute deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed significantly more often (p < 0.05) in the early stage of stroke recovery period. The frequency of acute lower extremity vein thrombosis was 7.8%, post-thrombotic changes — 5.6%. Isolated lesion of the lower leg veins was the most common complication associated with deep veins (49.6%). We have discovered a significant relationship between the side of lower extremity paresis (plegia) of and the side of deep vein thrombosis (p < 0.001). No relationship was found between lower extremity superficial and deep vein thrombosis and use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (p > 0.05). Excess body weight was associated with damage to the lower extremity proximal veins (p < 0.05). Women had lower extremity vein thrombosis significantly more often (p < 0.05). Repeated lower extremity venous duplex scanning upon admission to the rehabilitation hospital allowed reducing the risk of venous thromboembolic complications that may develop during the stroke recovery period.

Keywords: rehabilitation, venous thromboembolic complications, stroke, vein thrombosis of lower extremities, stroke recovery period, immobilization