Contemporary approach to diagnosis of ischemic stroke pathogenetic variants in patients with atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension

Anufriev PL, Tanashyan MM, Gulevskaya TS
About authors

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Pavel L. Anufriev
Volokolamskoye shosse, 80, Moscow, 125367; ur.ygoloruen@veirfuna

About paper

Funding: the study was carried out as part of the public contract “Acute Vascular and Nonvascular Cerebral Lesions: Pathogenetic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects”, state registration no. АААА-А20-120110390021-4.

Author contribution: Anufriev PL – data analysis and statistical processing, manuscript writing; Tanashjan MM, Gulevskaja TS – study design, data analysis, manuscript editing.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Research Center of Neurology (protocol № 11/14 dated November 19, 2014).

Received: 2020-11-24 Accepted: 2020-12-12 Published online: 2020-12-25

The angio- and neurovisualization methods vigorously developing in recent decades determine the relevance of improvement of etiopathogenetic ischemic stroke classification used for the treatment tactics selection and for secondary prevention of the disorder. The study was aimed to clarify the capabilities of clinical diagnosis for pathogenetic variants of ischemic stroke. For that, in 125 postmortem cases, the macro and microscopic examination of brain and cardiovascular system was carried out in order to verify the stroke pathogenesis established as a result of the previous patients’ examination. The study demonstrates the great potential of the major pathogenetic stroke subtypes (large-artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolism, small-artery occlusion) diagnosis using the complex of contemporary clinical and instrumental methods and the main morphological criteria of these subtypes in accordance with the TOAST classification. Moreover, the clinical and pathomorphological assessment allowed us to differentiate stroke resulting from various alterations of single cerebral artery, the atherothrombotic occlusion (44% of cases for the subtype), arterio-arterial embolism (13%) and critical stenosis (10%), as well as stroke resulting from cerebrovascular insufficiency (33%), within the “large-artery atherosclerosis” subtype. Thus, the high informativity of the existing examination methods allows for a more differentiated understanding of the cause of ischemic stroke, which is fully in line with modern personalized medicine.