Characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer in the population of the Russian Federation
"Standard" diagnostic panels allow identification of only a few of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations most common in a population. Therefore, tests relying on such panels may return false negative results, since the coding regions of these genes may have other defects. For breast cancer (BC) patients, false negative test results may translate into selection of inadequate therapy by their doctors. This study aimed to identify the features of BRCA-associated breast cancer in the population of the Russian Federation. The study included breast cancer patients (n = 4440). At the first stage, all patients were screened for the eight most common BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations with the help of real-time PCR. Next, patients that exhibited clinical signs of a hereditary disease (CSHD) in the absence of common mutations (n = 290) had the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes studied with next generation sequencing (NGS). "Standard" mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were identified in 169 (3.8%) cases. In the CSHD group, such mutations were revealed in 15.4% of cases. NGS uncovered 33 rare pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in 40 out of 290 breast cancer patients (13.8%). It was concluded that among the residents of the Russian Federation, the range of pathogenic variants of BRCA-associated breast cancer is wide, and it stretches beyond the mutations considered by the "standard" diagnostic panels. Analysis of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes allows increasing efficiency of detection of germline mutations in breast cancer patients at least twofold.
Keywords: NGS, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, neхt-generation sequencing, hereditary breast cancer