Peculiarities of amino acid profile in monocytes in breast cancer
Monocytes are large circulating white blood cells that are the main precursors of tissue macrophages as well as tumor-associated macrophages in the adult body. Different types of monocytes have multidirectional effects on the growth and metastatic spread of cancer cells, both activating and inhibiting these processes. Tumor progression is associated with the triggering of a whole cascade of inflammatory and immune reactions. These pathological processes are associated with changes in the amino acid content of monocytes, which can lead to disruption of their function, in particular their migration, division and maturation. The aim of the work was to profile the amino acids of monocytes, followed by a study of the amino acid composition of monocytes from patients with breast cancer using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Significant differences in metabolite levels in monocytes of breast cancer patients and monocytes of healthy donors were found for glycine (p-value = 0.0127), asparagine (p-value = 0.0197), proline (p-value = 0.0159), methionine (p-value = 0.0357), tryptophan (p-value = 0.0028), tyrosine (p-value = 0.0127). In the study, we identified biological networks that could potentially be involved in altering the phenotype of monocytes affected by breast cancer (BC), using bioinformatic analysis of metabolic pathways involving the discovered amino acids. Mathematical models based on amino acid combinations with 100% sensitivity and specificity have been developed. Features of immune system cell metabolism in BC have been identified and potential diagnostic biomarkers have been proposed.
Keywords: breast cancer, mass spectrometry, monocytes, metabolomics, amino acids