Interferon signature in the development of SLE: molecular mechanisms, approaches to diagnosis and treatment

Nakonechnaya TO1, Shagina IA2,3, Myshkin MYu2,3, Mutovina ZYu4, Ryazantseva EV4, Chudakov DM1,2, Turchaninova MA2,3, Britanova OV2,3
About authors

1 Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

2 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

3 LLC MiLaboratory, Moscow, Russia

4 Department of Rheumatology, City Clinical Hospital No. 52 of the Department of Health, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Olga V. Britanova
Miklouho-Maklaya, s. 16/10, 117997, Moscow, Russia; moc.liamg@natirblo

About paper

Financing: the study was supported by a grant from the Moscow Government (NIP No. 2412-63/22-1 dated May 13, 2022), sponsored by the Moscow Center for Innovative Technologies in Healthcare.

Author contribution: Myshkin MYu — literature analysis; Mutovina ZYu, Shagina IA — data collection in the field of rheumatology and medicine; Chudakov DM — concept, Turchaninova MA — analysis and interpretation of scientific data; Ryazantseva EV, Kazhdan MA — manuscript proofreading, Britanova OV, Nakonechnaya TO — literature analysis and manuscript preparation.

Received: 2024-06-24 Accepted: 2024-06-28 Published online: 2024-06-30

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of connective tissue and damage to various organs, including joints, skin, kidneys and heart. The disease has a significant gender predisposition and is more common in women. The pathogenesis of SLE is based on a violation of immunological tolerance, accompanied by activation of B lymphocytes and the production of autoantibodies. Recent advances in basic research have significantly deepened the understanding of the immunopathogenetic mechanisms of SLE, which justifies the use of new pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These approaches involve the use of biological drugs aimed at blocking the activity of type I interferon (IFN) or its receptors. The article discusses the molecular mechanisms of activation of the interferon response in SLE, modern methods for diagnosing the interferon signature, and new approaches to treatment aimed at blocking the interferon pathway. The possible role of the interferon signature in the stratification of SLE patients is also discussed. Such stratification will make it possible to more effective select treatment regimens taking into account the individual characteristics of the immune response of each patient. This may increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce the likelihood of side effects and improve the prognosis for patients with SLE.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, interferon signature, anifrolumab