Significance of analysis of lipid extracts in cervical canal secretion for diagnosing of placenta-associated complications of pregnancy
Omics technologies hold great potential as the basis for development of the new diagnostic approaches in obstetrics. Cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) as part of the mother-placenta-fetus system can be used to diagnose obstetric complications. This study aimed to identify the features of lipid composition of the cervical canal secretion peculiar to Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE). We took CVF samples from 57 pregnant women and subjected them to an in-depth clinical-anamnestic and mass-spectrometric analysis. Lipid extracts of CVF were analyzed with a liquid chromatography system coupled with a mass analyzer. As a result, we identified 239 lipid compounds. In case of 17 lipids, mathematical analysis revealed significant differences between samples from women with normal pregnancy indicator values (normal group) and patients from the IUGR group (p < 0.05). As for the normal group and PE group patients, there were significant differences identified for 3 lipids (p < 0.05). Comparison of samples from the PE and IUGR groups yielded statistically significant differences in levels of two lipids (p < 0.05). Mainly, the lipids were oxylipins, sphingomyelins, triglycerides, and cardiolipins. The developed diagnostic model had the sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.91 (cut-off level — 0.50; AUC — 0.85). The data obtained are valuable in the context of development of the new methods of diagnosing placentaassociated complications of pregnancy and for understanding new mechanisms of pathogenesis of these complications.