Sensors for analysis of drugs, drug-drug interactions, and catalytic activity of enzymes

About authors

1 Institute of Biomedical Chemistry (IBMC), Moscow, Russia

2 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Lyubov E. Agafonova
Pogodinskaya, 10/8, Moscow, 119121, Russia; ur.liam@abulavonofaga

About paper

Funding: the study was carried out within the framework of the Russian Federation fundamental research program for the long-term period for 2021–2030.

Author contribution: Agafonova LE — experimental procedure, data processing, manuscript writing, building graphs; Bulko TV — sample preparation, experimental procedure; Kuzikov AV — statistical data processing, manuscript writing; Masamrekh RA — sample preparation, experimental procedure; Shumyantseva VV — concept, manuscript writing, data analysis.

Received: 2022-02-07 Accepted: 2022-02-21 Published online: 2022-02-28

Development of highly sensitive methods for drug analysis is an ongoing challenge posed by modern bioanalytical and pharmaceutical chemistry. Drug analysis is essential to monitor the quality and purity of pharmaceuticals, study the delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents, to assess the effectiveness of the substance incorporation into the drug delivery system, to estimate the kinetic parameters of reactions, catalyzed by enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and to study the mechanisms of the drug-DNA interactions from the perspective of pharmacogenomics. The study was aimed to develop an electrochemical technique for detection of a number of drugs. The method is based on electrochemical oxidation of organic molecules at positive potentials between +(0÷1.6) V. The commercially available three-contact electrodes obtained by screen printing with unmodified graphite working electrode were used for analysis. It is shown that electrochemical technique allows for simultaneous detection of several compounds at various working electrode potentials, and for detection of drugs over a wide range of the clinically meaningful drug concentrations (50 µM – 10 mМ), which could be used when working with biological fluids (blood plasma, blood serum, blood, urine), as well as when performing drug monitoring and drug–drug interaction analysis.

Keywords: electroanalysis, drugs, voltaren, nurofen, paracetamol, unmodified screen-printed graphite electrodes