Antiphospholipid antibodies and outcomes of assisted reproductive technology programs in patients with a history of COVID-19
Investigation of the effect COVID-19 mediated with autoantibodies has on reproductive outcomes is important. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and their association with the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs in patients with a history of COVID-19. The study included 240 patients: 105 of them did not have a history of COVID-19 (group 1) and 135 of them had a history of COVID-19 (group 2) with a mild course (subgroup 2a, n = 85) or moderate course (subgroup 2b, n = 50). With the help of ELISA, serum antibodies (M, G) to cardiolipin, β2-glycoprotein-I, annexin V (AnV), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex were determined. The evaluated parameters were the indices of oogenesis, embryogenesis, ART intervention outcomes. In group 2, growing levels of anti-AnV and anti-PE IgG were observed more often (in 28 (20.7%) and 8 (5.9%) patients) than in group 1 (in 10 (9.5%) and 1 (0.95%); p = 0.02 and p = 0.045, respectively). In subgroup 2b we registered a higher level of anti-PE IgG and a higher incidence of early miscarriages (in 6 (12%) patients) than in group 1 (in 3 (2.9%)) (p = 0.024). Weak inverse correlations were found between the level of anti-PE IgG and the number of oocytes and zygotes. The results of this study suggest a negative impact of aPL-mediated COVID-19 on the outcomes of ART programs and the course of early pregnancy.