Adipokines and myokines as indicators of obese phenotypes and their association with the gut microbiome diversity indices

Shestopalov AV2,3, Ganenko LA1, Grigoryeva TV4, Laikov AV4, Vasilyev IYu4, Kolesnikova IM3, Naboka YuL4, Volkova NI1, Roumiantsev SA2,3
About authors

1 Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

2 Center for Molecular Health, Institute of Digital and Translational Biomedicine, Moscow, Russia

3 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

4 Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Lilia A. Ganenko
Nakhichevansky pereulok, 29, Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russia; ur.xednay@ailil.oknenag

About paper

Funding: the study was conducted as part of the State Assignment № 0373100122119000041, the project “Creation of a bank of blood serum and fecal samples from healthy donors and patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract with the aim of identifying candidate species-specific mediators of quorum sensing microbiota systems human modulating endocrine and metabolic function of adipose tissue”.

Author contribution: Ganenko LA — study concept, data acquisition and analysis, manuscript writing; Volkova NI — research planning and management, manuscript editing; Roumiantsev SA — study design, manuscript editing; Grigoryeva TV — working with the database, analysis of the results; Laikov AV — data analysis and interpretation of the results; Vasilyev IYu — study concept, manuscript editing; Gaponov AM — literature review, study design, manuscript editing; Naboka YuL — data analysis and interpretation of the results, manuscript editing; Shestopalov AV — search for sources of funding, working with data sets, statistical data processing, manuscript writing.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Rostov State Medical University (protocol № 20/19 of 12 December 2019); the informed consent was submitted by all study participants.

Received: 2022-12-19 Accepted: 2023-01-21 Published online: 2023-02-17

Today, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are distinguished. Adipose and muscle tissues can determine the obese phenotype due to adipokine and myokine production. Gut microbial community is also involved in MHO. The study was aimed to reveal the features of adipokine and myokine levels and their association with the gut microbiome alpha diversity in patients with MHO and MUO. A total of 265 subjects were divided into two groups: healthy individuals and obese patients. The latter were divided into two subgroups: patients with MHO and patients with MUO. Body mass index, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, adipokine and myokine levels, gut microbiome taxonomic composition, alpha diversity indices were defined in all the surveyed individuals, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was also assessed. Significant differences in the adipokine and myokine levels and their association with the gut microbiome diversity indicators were revealed in patients with different obese phenotypes. Patients with MHO and MUO showed significantly lower adiponectin levels (р < 0.05) and significantly higher leptin and asprosin levels (р < 0.05) than healthy individuals. Patients with MUO had lower adiponectin and leptin levels (p < 0.05) than patients with MHO. Significantly higher FGF21 levels were observed in patients with MUO. Large-scale correlation analysis revealed the relationship between the glucose levels and the gut microbiome diversity indices that was missing in patients with MUO. This indicated the loss of the microbiota diversity effects on the blood glucose control in individuals with MUO, as well as different regulatory roles in the gut microbiome‒liver‒muscle/adipose tissue axes of individuals with MHO and MUO played by gut microbiota. The findings show the relationship between the gut microbiome diversity and the obese phenotype.

Keywords: obesity, metabolically healthy obesity, adipokines, myokines, gut microbiome alpha diversity